The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, its main task being the maintenance of international peace and security, as well as establishing peacekeeping operations, international sanctions, and authorizing military actions through Security Council resolutions. The great powers, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States serve as the body’s five permanent members. These permanent members can veto any substantive Security Council resolution, including those on the admission of new member states or candidates for Secretary General. The Security Council also has 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve staggered two-year terms. What’s more, the body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.
1.Preventing a resurgence of violence in Burundi
Since its independence in 1962, Burundi has seen recurring armed conflict. Ethnical, religious and political tensions have been the driving forces of the violence. Both the mass killing of Hutus by Tutsi forces in 1973 and the killing of Tutsis by Hutus in 1993 are considered genocides. From 2004 to 2007, the United Nations had a peacekeeping force in the country to ensure respect for ceasefire agreements and disarm the population. While some form of stable governance has been reached and fighting has ceased, extreme poverty, weak rule of law as well as ongoing human rights violations continue to be challenges. Protests against the President in 2015 where followed by a violent response by the government. As division remains in society, recent political tensions have increased fears that the country could deteriorate into armed conflict once again.
2.Protecting civilians in the Yemeni civil war
The war in Yemen is a civil war that has been going since 2015 and now involves a number of outside actors. The Houthi and other militias in the West of the country attempted to overthrow the government, but only managed to seize half the country. Constant fighting continues since then. It has devastated the country and created the worst humanitarian situation in the world, according to UN figures. Aside from the high number of civilian casualties of the fighting, over 8 million people in the country face starvation. Humanitarian aid is underfunded and often cannot enter the country because of a military blockade. Both the Houthi and the Saudi-led military coalition have been accused of targeting civilians. The United Nations Security Council has the difficult task to not only restore peace and stability in the region, but also ensure that aid and protection is provided for the civilian population. The suffering in Yemen is part of what has been described as the worst humanitarian catastrophe in UN history.
|People's Republic of China||?|
|United States of America|